A quantitative Demographic and Health Survey, taken every five years, looking at many aspects of development which indicates a significant disparity between urban and rural Ethiopia came out Thursday April 5th. The survey shows places like Addis Ababa markedly improving while regions such as Benishangul-Gumuz struggle.
The nationally representative sample of 16,515 women aged 15 to 49 and 14,110 men aged 15 to 59 looks at fertility, electricity and water supply, radio, mobile and TV ownership, and literacy levels. The response rate was 95 percent.
The 2011 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) is designed to provide data for monitoring population and health in Ethiopia. It is the third DHS conducted in Ethiopia. Its goal is to provide current and reliable data on fertility and family planning, infant and child mortality, children’s nutritional status, use of maternal and child health services, women’s empowerment, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and prevalence of HIV/AIDS and anemia.
Adult and Child mortality
Childhood mortality levels are decreasing in Ethiopia. At present, infant mortality is 59 deaths per 1,000 live births for the five-year period. Previously, the survey reported 77 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2005. Under-five mortality levels have also decreased from 123 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2005 to the current level of 88 deaths per 1,000 live births.
Mortality rates differ dramatically by region. The under-five mortality rate for the ten-year period before the survey ranges from 53 deaths per 1,000 live births in Addis Ababa to 169 in the Benishangul-Gumuz region. Under-five mortality also differs according to the mother’s level of education; under-five mortality for children born to a mother who has more than secondary education is 24 deaths per 1,000 live births, compared with 121 deaths per 1,000 live births among children whose mothers have received no education.
Overall, 38 percent of women and 67 percent of men aged 15 to 49 are literate. Literacy among women living in urban areas is twice as high as literacy among women living in rural areas (69 percent and 29 percent, respectively). Similarly, 90 percent of men living in urban areas are literate, compared with 60 percent of men living in rural areas.
Fertility in Ethiopia has declined modestly over the past decade. Currently, women in Ethiopia have an average of 4.8 children, down from 5.5 in 2000. Fertility varies with residence area. Women in urban areas have 2.6 children on average, compared with 5.5 in rural areas. Fertility also varies with mother’s education and economic status. Women who have no education have over four times as many children as women with more than secondary education (5.8 versus 1.3 children per woman). Fertility increases as the wealth of the respondent’s household decreases. The poorest women, in general, have twice as many children as women who live in the wealthiest households (6.0 versus 2.8 children per woman).
Almost half (47 percent) of household members are children under the age of 15. Twenty-six percent of Ethiopian households are headed by women.
Knowledge of family planning methods in Ethiopia is nearly universal; 97 percent of all women and 98 percent of all men age 15 to 49 know at least one modern method of family planning. The most commonly known methods are injectables, male condoms, and birth control pills. Family planning use has almost doubled since 2005, when only 14 percent of married women were using a modern method. This is primarily due to a continued increase in the use of injectables.
Housing, Education, Income
Housing conditions vary greatly based on location. Eighty-five percent of urban households have electricity compared with only five percent of rural households. Ninety five percent households in urban areas have access to an improved water source, compared with 42 percent of households in rural areas. Overall, just eight percent of households use an improved, not-shared toilet facility. Nearly 4 in 10 (38 percent) Ethiopian households have no toilet facility.
Currently, 41 percent of Ethiopian households own a radio and 25 percent have a mobile phone. Forty-two percent of urban households have a television, compared with one percent of rural households.
Over half (51 percent) of Ethiopian women and 30 percent of Ethiopian men have had no formal education; five percent of women and eight percent of men have gone to secondary school or beyond. Urban residents and those living in Addis Ababa have the highest level of education.