There are 232 million international migrants worldwide, representing 3.2 percent of the world’s total population of 7.2 billion, according to the latest UN estimates.
There are 35 million global migrants under the age of 20, up from 31 million in 2000 and another 40 million between the ages of 20 and 29. Together, they account for more than 30 percent of all migrants. And women and girls account for approximately half of all global youth migrants.
According to the World Migration Report by International Office for Migration (IOM) the shape of the global development agenda is not yet known but there is a growing debate about whether and how migration should be factored into a new frame work.
“How migration is integrated into the development agenda will depend partly on whether the focus remains on poverty eradication in the poorest countries of the world, rather than on a broader vision of inclusive and sustainable development for all countries,” the report states.
Whichever approach is taken, there is a clear need for a much stronger evidence base, to understand better on the linkages between migration and development, the report further states.
Although most effects of migration from developed countries to poor countries are positive, not all impacts on host societies are good, it says.
For some vulnerable groups of migrants, the circumstances and drivers of migration have an acute effect on their psychosocial well-being. Those who migrate in extreme circumstances, for example, fleeing conflict and humanitarian crises such as refugees and stranded migrants or those caught in trafficking and smuggling movements, may experience sever suffering and trauma along the way, which continues to reverberate in their lives, once in the country of destination. According to another UN report, this is especially true in case of youth migration.
“When young people migrate they tend to improve both their own financial situations and economic circumstances of their families through the income they earn and the remittances they send home, while destination countries benefit from greater economic efficiency. However, countries of origin can suffer from negative impacts of human capital flight,” the report pointed out.
The report also states that brain drain is a huge problem for poor countries. Brain drain is especially common in the health and education profession, the two sectors that are vital to a growing nation.